Esetismertetés / Case report

Alveolar echinococcosis in the form of malignant liver changes in connection with the presentation of three cases

Haragh A.1, Magyarosi D.1, Pap Á.1, Káposztás Z.2, Bajzik G.3, Czoma V.4, Csulak E.2, Szinku Z.1, Dezsényi B.5, Tóth Z.6, Hunyady B.1

1Somogy Megyei Kaposi Mór Oktató Kórház, Kaposvár, Gasztroenterológiai Osztály, 2Sebészeti Osztály, 3Radiológiai Osztály, 4Pathológiai Osztály, 5Dél-pesti Centrumkórház, Országos Hematológiai és Infektológiai Intézet, Infektológiai Osztály, 6Somogy Megyei Kaposi Mór Oktató Kórház, Dr. Baka József Diagnosztikai, Onkoradiológiai, Kutatási és Oktatási Központ Correspondence:

Despite new, enhanced imaging techniques and histology methods, differential diagnosis of nodular liver lesions is still not 100 percent perfect – especially in case of rare diseases, like alveolar echinococcosis. The parasite Echinococcus multilocularis may generate difficult to diagnose, tumor-like focal lesions in the liver – with poor prognosis in advanced cases, comparable with primary or secondary liver ma- lignancies. Three cases of alveolar echinococcosis are demonstrated in this paper, underlining, that only early diagnosis and adequate therapy may result in complete cure with long-term survival. Keywords: albendazol, alveolar echinococcosis, Echinococcus, liver tumor

ISSUE: Central European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology | 2021 | VOLUME 7, ISSUE 2

Orvostörténet / History in medicine

Vaccination in infectious digestive diseases: a historical overview

Buzás György Miklós dr.1, 2

1Ferencvárosi Egészségügyi Szolgáltató KKNP Kft., Gasztroenterológia, Budapest; 2MEDOC Egészségközpont,
Gasztroenterológia, Budapest

Epidemics have decimated the human population for thousands of years, even endangering their survival in some cases. The history of vaccinations began at the end of 18th century. Thereafter, with the development of bacteriology and immunology, the laboratory production of vaccines became possible using the inactivation and attenuation of viruses and bacteria. Vaccination programs were developed in different countries using different schedules. Later, vaccines using cell cultures and viral vectors were also created. With the advent of genetics, the use of molecular engineering and markers enabled the production of specific vaccines, which were used successfully in the prevention of some digestive infectious diseases such as cholera, rotavirus, hepatitis A and B. In spite of all the efforts, however, the science of vaccinology has yet to come up with vaccines for some diseases of great importance to public health: Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis C virus and Clostridioides difficile infection.

ISSUE: Central European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology | 2021 | VOLUME 7, ISSUE 2

Összefoglaló közlemények / Review

Molecular links between the oncobiome and pancreatic adenocarcinoma

Kiss Borbála dr.1, Mikó Edit dr.2, Sebő Éva dr.4, Tóth Judit dr.1, Ujlaki Gyula2, Szabó Judit dr.3, Karen Uray2,
Bai Péter dr.2, 5, Árkosy Péter dr.1

1Debreceni Egyetem, Onkológiai Tanszék, Debrecen; 2Debreceni Egyetem, Orvosi Vegytani Intézet, Debrecen; 3Debreceni Egyetem, Orvosi Mikrobiológiai Intézet, Debrecen; 4Kenézy Emlőcentrum, Kenézy Gyula Egyetemi Kórház, Debrecen; 5MTA-DE Lendület Sejtmetabolizmus Laboratórium, Debrecen

Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is one of the tumors with the highest mortality. Its’ median five year survival is only 7-8%. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is often advanced upon diagnosis, thus its early detection is an unmet medical need. Microbiome dysbiosis, termed oncobiosis can often be revealed in malignancies, likewise in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, where the oral, duodenal, ductal, and fecal microbiome converts to dysbiotic. Colonization by Helicobacter pylori and Malassezia, among others in the dysbiotic pancreas can be frequently observed. The pancreatic adenocarcinoma oncobiomes differ in long and short-term survivors. Survival is extended in pancreatic adenocarcinoma animal models when long-survivor oncobiomes were transplanted. In pancreatic adenocarcinoma, the inflammation plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Pancreatic oncobiome is shown to modulate the inflammatory cascades behind cancerization. This review is a brief summary of the studies about the oncobiotic processes in the pathogenesis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Changes in the metabolome during the neoplastic process are also mentioned along with some important types of bacterial metabolites (e.g. short chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids, polyamines, indole-derivatives). More diagnostically and therapeutically relevant metabolites and metabolic pathways are to be revealed in the near future.

ISSUE: Central European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology | 2021 | VOLUME 7, ISSUE 2